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http://hdl.handle.net/10071/22963
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Title: Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use
Authors: Prada, M.
Rodrigues, D. L.
Garrido, M. V.
Lopes, D.
Cavalheiro, B.
Gaspar, R.
Keywords: Emoji
Emoticon
Self-report evaluation
Individual differences
ELECTRONIC-mediated communication
Nonverbal cues
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Electronic Mediated Communication (EMC) has become highly prevalent in our daily lives. Many of the communication formats used in EMC are text-based (e.g., instant messaging), and users often include visual paralinguistic cues in their messages. In the current study, we examined the usage of two of such cues - emoji and emoticons. Specifically, we compared self-reported frequency of use, as well as attitudes (6 bipolar items, e.g., “fun” vs. “boring”) and motives for their usage (9 motives, e.g., “express how I feel to others”). We also examined these indicators according to age and gender. Overall, participants (N = 474, 72.6% women; Mage = 30.71, SD = 12.58) reported using emoji (vs. emoticons) more often, revealed more positive attitudes toward emoji usage, and identified more with motives to use them. Moreover, all the ratings were higher among younger (vs. older) participants. Results also showed that women reported to use emoji (but not emoticons) more often and expressed more positive attitudes toward their usage than men. However, these gender differences were particularly evident for younger participants. No gender differences were found for emoticons usage. These findings add to the emerging body of literature by showing the relevance of considering age and gender, and their interplay, when examining patterns of emoji and emoticons use.
Peer reviewed: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10071/22963
DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2018.06.005
ISSN: 0736-5853
Ciência-IUL: https://ciencia.iscte-iul.pt/id/ci-pub-48634
Accession number: WOS:000447575700010
Appears in Collections:CIS-RI - Artigos em revistas científicas internacionais com arbitragem científica

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