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|Title:||Generalization of classic question order effects across cultures|
|Authors:||Stark, T. H.|
Krosnick, J. A.
Belchior, A. M.
Clement, S. L.
Jónsdóttir, G. A.
Question order effects
|Abstract:||Questionnaire design is routinely guided by classic experiments on question form, wording, and context conducted decades ago. This paper explores whether two question order effects (one due to the norm of even-handedness, and the other due to subtraction or perceptual contrast) appear in surveys of probability samples in the U.S. and 11 other countries (Canada, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom, N = 25,607). Necessary conditions for the effects are introduced and results show that the question order effects occurred in the samples who met these necessary conditions. The abortion question order effect even appeared in countries in which the necessary condition was not met, suggesting that the question order effect there (and perhaps elsewhere) was not due to subtraction or perceptual contrast. The question order effects were not moderated by education. Strong support was observed for the form-resistant correlation hypothesis.|
|Appears in Collections:||CIES-RI - Artigos em revista científica internacional com arbitragem científica|
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