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Title: Trends and dilemmas facing environmental education in Portugal: from environmental problem assessment to citizenship involvement
Authors: Schmidt, L.
Nave, J.
O'Riordan, T.
Guerra, J.
Keywords: Education for sustainable development
Environmental education
Portugal environmental education
Sustainable development education in portugal
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Routledge/Taylor & Francis
Abstract: Environmental education (EE) emerged in Portugal as an organized field of collective action about 30 years ago. At this time of the return to democracy, major social and environmental changes had begun to occur. Yet, after 30 years of EE, together with significant improvements in the education system and curricula, the real impacts of these mostly voluntary and aggressive efforts aimed at preparing future citizens to deal effectively and sensitively with environmental problem solving are not yet evident. The pathways and social context of these efforts aimed at upgrading EE in Portugal, and their apparent failure to meet their objectives, form the basis of the analysis in this paper. The authors examine the results of a survey questionnaire sent to 15,000 public and private schools all running projects formally associated with both EE and education for sustainable development (ESD). The primary purpose of the analysis was to identify the trends, constraints, and potentials for these EE/ESD projects and initiatives within primary and secondary schools. In addition, perspectives as to the emerging trends in ESD in Portugal are discussed, bearing in mind the shifting educational context.
Description: WOS:000299678700005 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science)
Peer reviewed: Sim
ISSN: 1523-908X
Publisher version: The definitive version is available at:
Appears in Collections:CIES-RI - Artigos em revista científica internacional com arbitragem científica

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