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|Title:||An African perspective on the ILO conventions on minimum age: the case of Ethiopia|
|Publisher:||Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)|
|Abstract:||The ILO Minimum Age Conventions, adopted from 1919 - 1973, got their form in the post World War I context of industrialization, urbanization, social instability and a growing trade union movement, and were modelled on the late 19th century European labour legislation. It was a time of heavy unemployment, and the workers perceived child labourers as competitors on the labour market. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries of the world with a population of 90 million and a median age of 17.5 years. Primary education has been expanded and now reaches about 75% of the relevant age-group, while only 15% continue into secondary education. The contribution of the younger generation to productivity is essential and child labour is the prevailing norm. In the Ethiopian Constitution adopted 1995, the rights of children were addressed: the right to life, to education and to protection from labour exploitation. Ethiopia is signatory to the ILOConvention 138 and its national law has set the age-limit to 14 years. Ethiopia is a beneficiary of the World Bank's lending program to strengthen market economy, which has implications for children's employment and working conditions. During 2012 we did a study interviewing children working in the agricultural sector to discern how the globalisation of economy and human rights norms affect their lives. The situation for child agricultural workers in Ethiopia is an illustration of how child workers as agents are finding ways to manage within the legal and economic structures based on experiences from the West.|
|Appears in Collections:||CEI-CLN – Autoria de capítulos de livros nacionais|
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